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Vol 26 No 2

CONTENTS

August 1998


ARTICLES

Community Reaction to Noise
R.F. Soames Job and Julie Hatfield
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Consequences of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Effects Observed in Families
William Noble
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Allocation of Measured Hearing Loss Between Age and Noise
David Eden
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Some Issues in Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance
Norman L. Carter
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The Nature and Origin of Oto-Acoustic Emissions
Graeme K. Yates
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Occupational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Origin, Characterisation and Prevention
Eric Le Page
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An Overview of Research on The Effects of Noise on Animals
A. L. Brown and S. Raghu
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NOTES

Binaural Hearing in Music Performance
Donald Woolford
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Correction: Sound Proofing a Forge
Stephen Cooper
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Community Reaction to Noise

R. F. Soames Job & Julie Hatfield
Department of Psychology
University of Sydney
Sydney NSW 2006

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 35-39 (1998)
ABSTRACT: Community reaction to noise is an important effect of noise exposure which may harm health. Amelioration of community reaction requires that it be understood. We offer methodological recommendations in order to improve the validity am! reliability of the reaction data upon which this understanding is based. Evidence is presented to indicate that reaction is influenced by features of the person hearing the noise and the situation in which the noise is heard, as well as features of the noise itself. Consistent with this claim, the relationship between noise and exposure is found to be stronger when based on grouped rather than individual data. Given the critical influence of human factors (including psychological variables) on whether a sound is perceived as noise, and on the reaction it produces, we argue that development of solutions to the noise problem should not be focused exclusively on noise abatement measures. Psychological approaches to overcoming the noise problem, as well as issues for future research are suggested.

Consequences of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Effects Observed in Families

William Noble
School of Psychology
University of New England
Armidale, NSW 2351

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 41-43 (1998)
ABSTRACT: The physical effects of noise on hearing are well understood; consequences at a personal and social level are not so evidently appreciated. Noise-induced hearing loss may be especially associated with the phenomena of, I) reluctance on the part of the person with the injury to acknowledge hearing disabilities, and 2) misinterpretation in the family of the effects of hearing loss. These may be due in turn to, 1) fear of discrimination at work, and 2) lack of anticipated hearing problems at home. The impact of hearing injury within the family system takes the form of battles over the level of the TV, restricted social lives, and loss of intimacy within the relationship. Partners' adjustments to the effects of hearing loss suffered by a working-age spouse vary from action to achieve distance from or to minimise apparent problems, or to protect the spouse in contexts of communication difficulty.

Allocation of Measured Hearing Loss Between Age and Noise

David Eden
Acoustic Dynamics Pty Ltd
57 Lombard Street
Glebe, NSW 2037

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 45-47 (1998)
ABSTRACT: A convenient way of allocating a person's measured hearing loss between tbe competing causes of age and noise is explained. It uses spreadsheets and each oftbe person's measured hearing thresholds. The spreadsheet compares individual data to population data in International Standards ISO 1999 and ISO 7029. The method leads to a calculated "worst case effect of age" assuming a typical pattern of age related hearing loss. This gives a measure of the individuals hearing "toughness" or susceptibility to loss due to age. Assuming the same susceptibility to noise induced loss of hearing, it is possible to calculate hearing losses at each frequency assuming we know the person's noise exposure history. The results are plotted as graphs. The technique has been found useful in court cases for industrial deafness. Apart from the calculation advantages, it graphically iIIusttates when there is a component of hearing loss explainable more probably tban not by noise exposure.

Some Issues in Noise-Induced Sleep Disturbance

Norman L. Carter
Department of Architectural and Design Science
University of Sydney
Sydney, NSW 2006

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 49-52 (1998)
ABSTRACT: Research using the sleep polygraph to monitor sleep has indicated the main noise parameters related to sleep disturbance and the preferred noise metrics to be used. Evaluation and prediction of population statistics of noise-induced sleep disturbance due to noise has begun, using methods of detecting slecp disturbance more suited to large population testing. This work must continue if adequate guidelines for environmental noise control for the prevention of sleep disturbance are to be developed. Equally, the need for concurrent basic research on the effects of noise on sleep and health must not be lost sight of.

The Nature and Origin of Oto-Acoustic Emissions

Graeme K. Yates,
The Auditory Laboratory, Department of Physiology,
The University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6907, WA

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 53-55 (1998)
ABSTRACT: Transient?evoked otoacoustic emissions have been used for some years now as a screening and diagnostic tool in detecting hearing loss of cochlear origin but still little is known about how these emissions are generated and what information is really carried in them. In short, the basic physiology simply has not been done. Recently, Robert Withnell and I have been investigating emissions from the scientific rather than clinical viewpoint and have shown that, in the guinea pig at least, they are not what has previously been assumed. They are in fact a form of nonlinear distortion and this has some significance for the interpretation of transient otoacoustic emissions.

Occupational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: Origin, Characterisation and Prevention

Eric LePage
Hearing Loss Prevention Research, National Acoustic Laboratories,
126 Greville Street, Chatswood, NSW 2067

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 57-61 (1998)
ABSTRACT: Permanent hearing loss due to noise exposure constitutes premature aging of the ear caused by depletion of the outer hair cell population. Describing it is complex because many other factors also contribute to this depletion. Managing it is still more difficult because reduction of sound levels reaching the ear is not an adequate strategy by itself. Adequate prevention of any disability is only afforded by predetermination of individual risk coupled with comprehension of its severity. Otoacoustic emission data show that neither have traditional hearing tests given early warning, nor has the terminology 'mild hearing loss' indicated that extensive cochlear damage has accumulated.

An Overview of Research on The Effects of Noise on Animals

A. L. Brown and S. Raghu
Faculty of Environmental Sciences
Griffith University
Nathan, Qld 4111

Vol. 26, No. 2 pp 63-67 (1998)
ABSTRACT: While there is recognition worldwide for the need to assess the influence of noise on animals, both in terms of ecological disturbance in the wild, and effects on stress or productivity of domesticated animals, limited research has been undertaken in these fields. The paper presents an overview of this research activity and the contexts in which it has been carried out. Much of the literature deals with the impact of military activities, seismic and other exploration activities, and transpon. The paper identiftes relevant Australian work in the field and identifies some limitation in current work and avenues for further research.

Binaural Hearing in Music Performance

Donald Woolford
Visiting Scholar, Hearing Research Center,
Boston University.

Vol. 26, No. 2 pg 68 (1998)

Correction: Sound Proofing a Forge

Stephen Cooper

Vol. 26, No. 2 pg 55 (1998)

 

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